Appendix    A Lexicon Arrangement of Psalm 19


            By William Overn


To read the psalm, read the beginning of each prominent line in a vertical scan.


The definitions are from "The Online Bible", and are based on Brown, Driver, and Brigg's Lexicon.  The Greek‑word definitions are based on Thayer's Lexicon.  The numbers are Strong's word numbers.


      ( TWOT: "Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament")


    1. To the chief Musician <05329 natsach {naw‑tsakh'}


              a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1402; v


              1) to excel, be bright, be preeminent, be perpetual, be overseer,

                      be enduring

                1a) (Niph) enduring (participle)

                1b) (Piel) to act as overseer/superintendent/director/chief


    A Psalm <04210 mizmowr {miz‑more'}


              from 2167; TWOT ‑ 558c; n m


              1) melody, psalm


    of David <01732 David {daw‑veed'} rarely (fully); Daviyd {daw‑veed'}


               from the same as 1730; TWOT ‑ 410c; n pr m


               David = "beloved"


    The heavens <08064 shamayim {shaw‑mah'‑yim} dual of an unused  singular shameh  {shaw‑meh'}

                   from an unused root meaning to be lofty; TWOT ‑      2407a; n m


                  1) heaven, heavens, sky

                    1a) visible heavens, sky

                       1a1) as abode of the stars

                       1a2) as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc

                    1b) Heaven (as the abode of God)


    declare <05608 caphar {saw‑far'}


              a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1540,1540c



              1) to count, recount, relate

                1a) (Qal)

                   1a1) to count (things)

                   1a2) to number, take account of, reckon

                1b) (Niph) to be counted, be numbered

                1c) (Piel) to recount, rehearse, declare

                   1c1) to recount (something), rehearse

                   1c2) to talk

                   1c3) to count exactly/accurately

                1d) (Pual) to be recounted, be rehearsed, be related

              n m


     the glory <03519 kabowd {kaw‑bode'} rarely kabod {kaw‑bode'}


                 from 3513; TWOT ‑ 943d,943e; n m


1) glory, honour, glorious, abundance

                   1a) abundance, riches

                   1b) honour, splendour, glory

                   1c) honour, dignity

                   1d) honour, reputation

                   1e) honour, reverence, glory

                   1f) glory


    of God; <0410 'el {ale}


             shortened from 352; TWOT ‑ 93a; n m


             1) god, god‑like one, mighty one

               1a) mighty men, men of rank, mighty heroes

               1b) angels

               1c) god, false god, (demons, imaginations)

               1d) God, the one true God, Jehovah

             2) mighty things in nature

             3) strength, power


    and the firmament <07549 raqiya{at} {raw‑kee'‑ah}


                        from 7554; TWOT ‑ 2217a; n m


          1) extended surface (solid), expanse, firmament

            1a) expanse (flat as base, support)

            1b) firmament (of vault of heaven supporting waters above)

               1b1) considered by Hebrews as solid and supporting 'waters'   above


    sheweth <05046 nagad {naw‑gad'}


               a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1289; v


              1) to be conspicuous, tell, make known

                1a) (Hiph) to tell, declare

                   1a1) to tell, announce, report

                   1a2) to declare, make known, expound

                   1a3) to inform of

                   1a4) to publish, declare, proclaim

                   1a5) to avow, acknowledge, confess

                       1a5a) messenger (participle)

                1b) (Hoph) to be told, be announced, be reported


    his handywork. < [Strong gives no number, since this is two words:


            [work  <4639 ma{at}aseh {mah‑as‑eh'}


                   from 6213; TWOT ‑ 1708a; n m


                   1) deed, work

                     1a) deed, thing done, act

                     1b) work, labour

                     1c) business, pursuit

                     1d) undertaking, enterprise

                     1e) achievement

                     1f) deeds, works (of deliverance and judgment)

                     1g) work, thing made

                     1h) work (of God)

                     1i) product


[(of his) hands <3027 yad {yawd}


                   a primitive word; TWOT ‑ 844; n f


                   1) hand

                     1a) hand (of man)

                     1b) strength, power (figurative)

                     1c) side (of land), part, portion (metaphorical) (figurative)

                     1d) (various special, technical senses)

                        1d1) sign, monument

                        1d2) part, fractional part, share

                        1d3) time, repetition

                        1d4) axle‑trees

                        1d5) stays, support (for laver)

                        1d6) tenons (in tabernacle)

                        1d7) a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure)


    1. For the director of music. A psalm of David. The heavens

   declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his



    2  Day <03117 yowm {yome}


             from an unused root meaning to be hot; TWOT ‑ 852; n m


             1) day, time, year

               1a) day (as opposed to night)

               1b) day (24 hour period)

                  1b1) as defined by evening and morning

                  1b2) as a division of time

                      1b2a) a working day, a day's journey

               1c) days, lifetime (plural)

               1d) time, period (general)

               1e) year

               1f) temporal references

                  1f1) today

                  1f2) yesterday

                  1f3) tomorrow


    unto day    <03117>


    uttereth     <05042 naba{at} {naw‑bah'}


                   a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1287; v


         1) to flow, pour out, pour, gush forth, spring, bubble up, ferment

           1a) (Qal) to flow

           1b) (Hiph) to pour out, emit, cause to bubble, belch forth

              1b1) to pour out

              1b2) to cause to bubble, ferment

              1b3) to pour forth, emit, belch forth


    speech <0562 'omer {o'‑mer}


            the same as 561; TWOT ‑ 118a; n m


            1) utterance, speech, word, saying, promise, command


    and night<03915 layil {lah'‑yil} or (Isa. 21:11) leyl {lale}

                         also lay{at}lah {lah'‑ yel‑aw}


from the same as 3883; TWOT ‑ 1111; n m


                    1) night

                      1a) night (as opposed to day)

                      1b) of gloom, protective shadow (figurative)


    unto night <03915>


    sheweth <02331 chavah {khaw‑vah'}


              a primitive root [compare 2324, 242l]; TWOT ‑ 618; v


              1) (Piel) to tell, declare, show, make known

              2) (CLBL) to breath


    knowledge. <01847 da{at}ath {dah'‑ath}


                from 3045; TWOT ‑ 848c; n m/f


                1) knowledge

                  1a) knowledge, perception, skill

                  1b) discernment, understanding, wisdom


    2  Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night

   they display knowledge.


    3  [There is] no <0369 'ayin {ah'‑yin}


                    as if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing

                      or not exist;


                   1) nothing, not, nought


                     1a) nothing, nought


                     1b) not

                     1c) to have not (of possession)


                     1d) without


                     1e) for lack of


    speech <0562 'omer {o'‑mer}


            the same as 561; TWOT ‑ 118a; n m


            1) utterance, speech, word, saying, promise, command


    nor <0369>(see above)


    language <1697 dabar {daw‑baw'}


from 1696; TWOT ‑ 399a; n m


              1) speech, word, speaking, thing

                1a) speech

                1b) saying, utterance

                1c) word, words

                1d) business, occupation, acts, matter, case,

                something, manner (by extension)


    [where] their voice <6963 qowl {kole} or qol {kole}


               from an unused root meaning to call aloud;

               TWOT ‑ 1998a,2028b; n m


               1) voice, sound, noise

                 1a) voice

                 1b) sound (of instrument)

               2) lightness, frivolity


    is not heard <8085 shama{at} {shaw‑mah'}


                  a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2412, 2412a



                  1) to hear, listen to, obey

                    1a) (Qal)

                       1a1) to hear (perceive by ear)

                       1a2) to hear of/concerning

                       1a3) to hear (have power to hear)

                       1a4) to hear with attention/interest, listen to

                       1a5) to understand (language)

                       1a6) to hear (of judicial cases)

                       1a7) to listen, give heed

                           1a7a) to consent, agree

                           1a7b) to grant request

                       1a8) to listen to, yield to

                       1a9) to obey, be obedient

                    1b) (Niph)

                       1b1) to be heard (of voice/sound)

                       1b2) to be heard of

                       1b3) to be regarded, be obeyed

                    1c) (Piel) to cause to hear, call to hear, summon

                    1d) (Hiph)

                       1d1) to cause to hear, tell, proclaim, utter a sound

                       1d2) to sound aloud (musical term)

                       1d3) to make proclamation, summon

                       1d4) to cause to be heard

                  n m

                  2) sound


    3  There is no speech or language where their voice is not



    4  Their line <6957 qav {kav} or qav {kawv}


            from 6960 [compare 6961]; TWOT ‑ 1992,1994a; n m


            1) cord, line, measuring‑line

              1a) cord

               1b) measuring‑line

            2) (BDB) onomatapoetic mimicry of Isaiah's words, perhaps



                    In Ro 10:18 This word is the Greek "sound" (5353)

                    5353 phthoggos {ftong'‑gos}


                    from 5350; TDNT ‑ omitted,omitted; n m


                    AV  ‑ sound (2)

                    1) musical sound, whether vocal or instrumental


    is gone <3318 yatsa' {yaw‑tsaw'}


             a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 893; v


             1) to go out, come out, exit, go forth

                1a) (Qal)

                  1a1) to go/come out/forth, depart

                  1a2) to go forth (to a place)

                  1a3) to go forward, proceed to (to/toward something)

                  1a4) to come/go forth (with purpose or for result)

                  1a5) to come out of

               1b) (Hiph)

                  1b1) to cause to go/come out, bring out, lead out

                  1b2) to bring out of

                  1b3) to lead out

                  1b4) to deliver

               1c) (Hoph) to be brought out/forth


    out through all <3605 kol {kole} or (Jer. 33:8) kowl {kole}


                     from 3634; TWOT ‑ 985a; n m


                     1) all, the whole

                       1a) all, the whole of

                       1b) any, each, every, anything

                       1c) totality, everything


    the earth <0776 'erets {eh'‑rets}


         from an unused root probably meaning to be firm; TWOT ‑ 167; n f


         1) land, earth

           1a) earth

              1a1) whole earth (as opposed to a part)

              1a2) earth (as opposed to heaven)

              1a3) earth (inhabitants)

           1b) land

              1b1) country, territory

              1b2) district, region

              1b3) tribal territory

              1b4) piece of ground

              1b5) land of Canaan, Israel

              1b6) inhabitants of land

              1b7) Sheol, land without return, (under) world

              1b8) city (‑state)

           1c) ground, surface of the earth

              1c1) ground

              1c2) soil

             1d) (in phrases)

              1d1) people of the land

              1d2) space/distance of country (in measurements of


              1d3) level/plain country

              1d4) land of the living

              1d5) end(s) of the earth

           1e) (almost wholly late in usage)

               1e1) lands, countries

                  1e1a) often in contrast to Canaan


    and their words <04405 millah {mil‑law'}


                 from 4448 (plural masculine as if from milleh {mil‑leh'};

                    TWOT ‑ 1201a; n f


                 1) word, speech, utterance


    to the end <07097 qatseh {kaw‑tseh'} or (negative only) qetseh {kay'‑tseh}


                 from 7096; TWOT ‑ 2053a,2053c; n m


                 1) end, extremity

                   1a) end, mouth, extremity

                   1b) border, outskirts

                   1c) the whole (condensed term for what is included within  extremities)

                   1d) at the end of (a certain time)


    of the world <08398 tebel {tay‑bale'}


                   from 2986; TWOT ‑ 835h; n f


                   1) world


    In them hath he set <07760 suwm {soom} or siym {seem}


               a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2243; v


               1) to put, place, set, appoint, make

                 1a) (Qal)

                    1a1) to put, set, lay, put/lay upon, lay (violent) hands on

                    1a2) to set, direct, direct toward

                        1a2a) to extend (compassion) (figurative)

                    1a3) to set, ordain, establish, found, appoint, constitute,  make, determine, fix

                    1a4) to set, station, put, set in place, plant, fix

                    1a5) to make, make for, transform into, constitute, fashion,  work, bring to pass, appoint, give

                 1b) (Hiph) to set/make for a sign

                 1c) (Hoph) to be set


    a tabernacle <0168 'ohel {o'‑hel}

              1) tent

                1a) nomad's tent, and thus symbolic of wilderness life,


                1b) dwelling, home, habitation

                1c) the sacred tent of Jehovah (the tabernacle)

    for the sun <08121 shemesh {sheh'‑mesh}


        from an unused root meaning to be brilliant; TWOT ‑ 2417a; n f/m


        1) sun

          1a) sun

          1b) sunrise, sun‑rising, east, sun‑setting, west (of direction)

          1c) sun (as object of illicit worship)

          1d) openly, publicly (in other phrases)

          1e) pinnacles, battlements, shields (as glittering/shining)


    4  Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to

   the ends of the world. In the heavens he has pitched a tent

   for the sun,


    5  Which [is] as a bridegroom <02860> coming <03318> out of

    his chamber <2646 chuppah {khoop‑paw'}02646>,


                 from 2645; TWOT ‑ 710b; n f


                 1) chamber, room, canopy, closet

                   1a) canopy

                   1b) chamber

                   1c) divine protection (figurative)


                         2645 chaphah {khaw‑faw'}


                         a primitive root (compare 2644, 2653);

                                          TWOT ‑ 707; v


                         1) to cover, overlay

                           1a) (Qal) to cover

                           1b) (Niph) to be covered

                           1c) (Piel) to cover, overlay


[Job  9:9 Which maketh Arcturus, Orion,

and Pleiades, and the chambers <2315 cheder {kheh'‑der}


                   from 2314; TWOT ‑ 612a; n m


                   1) chamber, room, parlour, innermost or inward part, within


                           2314 chadar {khaw‑dar'}


                           a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 612; v


                           1) (Qal) to encompass, surround, enclose



of the south.]


    [and] rejoiceth <07797> as a strong<01368>

    man to run <07323> a race <0734>.


From this point on, the Psalm text is not intercollated with the

lexicon.  The definitions follow in numerical order.


    5  which is like a bridegroom coming forth from his

   pavilion, like a champion rejoicing to run his course.

   6  His going <04161> forth <04161> [is] from the end

   <07097> of the heaven <08064>, and his circuit <08622> unto

   the ends <07098> of it: and there is nothing <0369> hid

   <05641> from the heat <02535> thereof.

    6  It rises at one end of the heavens and makes its circuit

   to the other; nothing is hidden from its heat.

    7. The law <08451> of the LORD <03068> [is] perfect

   <08549>, converting <07725> the soul <05315>: the testimony

   <05715> of the LORD <03068> [is] sure <0539>, making wise

   <02449> the simple <06612>.

    7. The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul. The

   statutes of the LORD are trustworthy, making wise the


    8  The statutes <06490> of the LORD <03068> [are] right

   <03477>, rejoicing <08055> the heart <03820>: the

   commandment <04687> of the LORD <03068> [is] pure <01249>,

   enlightening <0215> the eyes <05869>.

    8  The precepts of the LORD are right, giving joy to the

   heart. The commands of the LORD are radiant, giving light to

   the eyes.

    9  The fear <03374> of the LORD <03068> [is] clean <02889>,

   enduring <05975> for ever <05703>: the judgments <04941> of

   the LORD <03068> [are] true <0571> [and] righteous <06663>

   altogether <03162>.

    9  The fear of the LORD is pure, enduring forever. The

   ordinances of the LORD are sure and altogether righteous.

    10  More to be desired <02530> [are they] than gold

   <02091>, yea, than much <07227> fine gold <06337>: sweeter

   <04966> also than honey <01706> and the honeycomb.

    10  They are more precious than gold, than much pure gold;

   they are sweeter than honey, than honey from the comb.

    11  Moreover <01571> by them is thy servant <05650> warned

   <02094>: [and] in keeping <08104> of them [there is] great

   <07227> reward <06118>.

    11  By them is your servant warned; in keeping them there

   is great reward.

    12  Who <04310> can understand <0995> [his] errors <07691>?

   cleanse <05352> thou me from secret <05641> [faults].

    12  Who can discern his errors? Forgive my hidden faults.

    13  Keep <02820> back <02820> thy servant <05650> also

   <01571> from presumptuous <02086> [sins]; let them not have

   dominion <04910> over me: then <0227> shall I be upright

   <08552>, and I shall be innocent <05352> from the great

   <07227> transgression <06588>.

    13  Keep your servant also from willful sins; may they not

   rule over me. Then will I be blameless, innocent of great


    14  Let the words <0561> of my mouth <06310>, and the

   meditation <01902> of my heart <03820>, be acceptable

   <07522> in thy sight <06440>, O LORD <03068>, my strength

   <06697>, and my redeemer <01350>.

    14  May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my

   heart be pleasing in your sight, O LORD, my Rock and my





          0215 'owr {ore}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 52; v

          1) to be or become light, shine

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to become light (day)

               1a2) to shine (of the sun)

               1a3) to become bright

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to be illuminated

               1b2) to become lighted up

            1c) (Hiph)

               1c1) to give light, shine (of sun, moon, and stars)

               1c2) to illumine, light up, cause to shine, shine

               1c3) to kindle, light (candle, wood)

               1c4) lighten (of the eyes, his law, etc)

               1c5) to make shine (of the face)


          0227 'az {awz}


          a demonstrative adverb; TWOT ‑ 54; adv


          1) then, at that time

            1a) temporal expressions

               1a1) then (past)

               1a2) then, if...then (future)

               1a3) earlier

            1b) logical expressions

               1b1) in that case

               1b2) that (being so)



          0430 'elohiym {el‑o‑heem'}


          plural of 433; TWOT‑ 93c; n m p


          1) (plural)

            1a) rulers, judges

            1b) divine ones

            1c) angels

            1d) gods

          2) (plural intensive ‑ singular meaning)

            2a) god, goddess

            2b) godlike one

            2c) works or special possessions of God

            2d) the (true) God

            2e) God


          0539 'aman {aw‑man'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 116; v


          1) to support, confirm, be faithful

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to support, confirm, be faithful, uphold, nourish

                   1a1a) foster‑father (substantive)

                   1a1b) foster‑mother, nurse

                   1a1c) pillars, supporters of the door

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to be established, be faithful, be carried, make firm

                   1b1a) to be carried by a nurse

                   1b1b) made firm, sure, lasting

                   1b1c) confirmed, established, sure

                   1b1d) verified, confirmed

                   1b1e) reliable, faithful, trusty

            1c) (Hiph)

               1c1) to stand firm, to trust, to be certain, to believe in

                   1c1a) stand firm

                   1c1b) trust, believe


          0561 'emer {ay'‑mer}


          from 559; TWOT ‑ 118a; n m


          1) utterance, speech, word, saying, promise, command



          0571 'emeth {eh'‑meth}


          contracted from 539; TWOT ‑ 116k


          n f

          1) firmness, faithfulness, truth

            1a) sureness, reliability

            1b) stability, continuance

            1c) faithfulness, reliableness

            1d) truth

               1d1) as spoken

               1d2) of testimony and judgment

               1d3) of divine instruction

               1d4) truth as a body of ethical or religious knowledge

               1d5) true doctrine


          2) in truth, truly


          0734 'orach {o'‑rakh}


          from 732; TWOT ‑ 161a; n m


          1) way, path

            1a) path, road

            1b) the path, way, passing of life (figurative)

            1c) way of living (figurative)

            1d) traveller, wayfarer (meton)



          0995 biyn {bene}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 239; v


          1) to discern, understand, consider

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to perceive, discern

               1a2) to understand, know (with the mind)

               1a3) to observe, mark, give heed to,distinguish, consider

               1a4) to have discernment, insight, understanding

            1b) (Niph) to be discerning, intelligent, discreet, have


            1c) (Hiph)

               1c1) to understand

               1c2) to cause to understand, give understanding, teach

            1d) (Hithp) to show oneself discerning/attentive, consider


          2) (TWOT) prudent, regard


          1249 bar {bar}


          from 1305 (in its various senses); TWOT ‑ 288a; adj


          1) pure, clear, sincere

          2) clean, empty


          3) purely


          1350 ga'al {gaw‑al'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 300; v


          1) to redeem, act as kinsman‑redeemer, avenge, revenge, ransom, do  the part of a kinsman

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to act as kinsman, do the part of next of kin, act as


                   1a1a) by marrying brother's widow to beget a child for him,  to redeem from slavery, to redeem land, to exact


               1a2) to redeem (by payment)

               1a3) to redeem (with God as subject)

                   1a3a) individuals from death

                   1a3b) Israel from Egyptian bondage

                   1a3c) Israel from exile

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to redeem oneself

               1b2) to be redeemed


          1368 gibbowr {ghib‑bore'} or (shortened) gibbor{ghib‑bore'}


          intensive from 1396; TWOT ‑ 310b



          1) strong, mighty

          n m

          2) strong man, brave man, mighty man


          1571 gam {gam}


          by contraction from an unused root; TWOT ‑ 361a; adv


          1) also, even, indeed, moreover, yea

            1a) also, moreover (giving emphasis)

            1b) neither, neither...nor (with negative)

            1c) even (for stress)

            1d) indeed, yea (introducing climax)

            1e) also (of correspondence or retribution)

            1f) but, yet, though (adversative)

            1g) even, yea, yea though (with 'when' in hypothetical case)

          2) (TWOT) again, alike


          1706 d{at}bash {deb‑ash'}


       from an unused root meaning to be gummy; TWOT ‑ 400a; n m


          1) honey



          1902 higgayown {hig‑gaw‑yone'}


          intensive from 1897; TWOT ‑ 467c; n m


          1) meditation, resounding music, musing

            1a) resounding music

            1b) meditation, plotting


          2086 zed {zade'}


          from 2102; TWOT ‑ 547a; n m


          1) arrogant, proud, insolent, presumptuous

            1a) the arrogant ones (as n coll pl)

            1b) presumptuous (as adj)


          2091 zahab {zaw‑hawb'}


         from an unused root meaning to shimmer; TWOT ‑ 529a; n m


          1) gold

            1a) as precious metal

            1b) as a measure of weight

            1c) of brilliance, splendour (figurative)


          2094 zahar {zaw‑har'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 531,532; v


         1) to admonish, warn, teach, shine, send out light, be light, be


            1a) (Niph) to be taught, be admonished

            1b) (Hiph)

               1b1) to teach, warn

               1b2) to shine, send out light (figurative)


          2449 chakam {khaw‑kam'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 647; v


          1) to be wise

            1a) (Qal) to be/become wise, act wisely

            1b) (Piel) to make wise, teach wisdom, instruct

            1c) (Pu) to be made wise

            1d) (Hiph) to make wise

            1e) (Hithp) to show oneself wise, deceive, show one's wisdom


          2530 chamad {khaw‑mad'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 673



          1) to desire, covet, take pleasure in, delight in

            1a) (Qal) to desire

            1b) (Niph) to be desirable

            1c) (Piel) to delight greatly, desire greatly

          n f

          2) desirableness, preciousness


          2535 chammah {kham‑maw'}


          from 2525; TWOT ‑ 677c; n f


          1) sun, heat of the sun, heat


          2820 chasak {khaw‑sak'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 765; v


          1) to withhold, restrain, hold back, keep in check, refrain

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to withhold, keep back, keep for oneself, keep from, hold  in check, refrain, spare, reserve

               1a2) to restrain, check

            1b) (Niph) to assuage, be spared


          2860 chathan {khaw‑thawn'}


          from 2859; TWOT ‑ 781c; n m


          1) son‑in‑law, daughter's husband, bridegroom, husband


          2889 tahowr {taw‑hore'} or tahor {taw‑hore'}


          from 2891; TWOT ‑ 792d; adj


          1) pure, clean

            1a) clean (ceremonially ‑ of animals)

            1b) pure (physically)

            1c) pure, clean (morally, ethically)


          3068 Y{at}hovah {yeh‑ho‑vaw'}


          from 1961; TWOT ‑ 484a; n pr dei


          Jehovah = "the existing One"

          1) the proper name of the one true God

            1a) unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of 136



          3162 yachad {yakh'‑ad}


          from 3161; TWOT ‑ 858b;


          n m

          1) union, unitedness


          2) together, altogether, all together, alike


          3290 Ya{at}aqob {yah‑ak‑obe'}


          from 6117; TWOT ‑ omitted; n pr m


          Jacob = "heel holder" or "supplanter"

          1) son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham, and father of the 12 patriarchs  of the tribes of Israel



          3374 yir'ah {yir‑aw'}


          feminine of 3373; TWOT ‑ 907b; n f


1) fear, terror, fearing

            1a) fear, terror

            1b) awesome/terrifying thing (object causing fear)

            1c) fear (of God), respect, reverence, piety

            1d) revered


          3477 yashar {yaw‑shawr'}


          from 3474; TWOT ‑ 930a; adj


          1) straight, upright, correct, right

            1a) straight, level

            1b) right, pleasing, correct

            1c) straightforward, just, upright, fitting, proper

            1d) uprightness, righteous, upright

            1e) that which is upright (subst)



          3820 leb {labe}


          a form of 3824; TWOT ‑ 1071a; n m


          1) inner man, mind, will, heart, understanding

            1a) inner part, midst

               1a1) midst (of things)

               1a2) heart (of man)

               1a3) soul, heart (of man)

               1a4) mind, knowledge, thinking, reflection, memory

               1a5) inclination, resolution, determination (of will)

               1a6) conscience

               1a7) heart (of moral character)

               1a8) as seat of appetites

               1a9) as seat of emotions and passions

               1a10) as seat of courage


          4161 mowtsa' {mo‑tsaw'} or motsa' {mo‑tsaw'}


          from 3318; TWOT ‑ 893c; n m


          1) act/place of going out/forth, issue, export, source, spring

            1a) a going forth

               1a1) rising (sun), going forth of a command

               1a2) goings forth, those going forth

               1a3) way out, exit

            1b) that which goes forth

               1b1) utterance

               1b2) export

            1c) place of going forth

               1c1) source/spring (of water)

               1c2) place of departure

               1c3) east (of sun)

               1c4) mine (of silver)


          4310 miy {me}


          an interrogative pronoun of persons, as 4100 is of things, who?

             (occasionally, by a peculiar idiom, of things; TWOT ‑ 1189;  interr pron


          1) who?, whose?, whom?, would that, whoever, whosoever

          4687 mitsvah {mits‑vaw'}


          from 6680; TWOT ‑ 1887b; n f


          1) commandment

            1a) commandment (of man)

            1b) the commandment (of God)

            1c) commandment (of code of wisdom)


          4910 mashal {maw‑shal'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1259; v


          1) to rule, have dominion, reign

            1a) (Qal) to rule, have dominion

            1b) (Hiph)

               1b1) to cause to rule

               1b2) to exercise dominion


          4941 mishpat {mish‑pawt'}


          from 8199; TWOT ‑ 2443c; n m


          1) judgment, justice, ordinance

            1a) judgment

               1a1) act of deciding a case

               1a2) place, court, seat of judgment

               1a3) process, procedure, litigation (before judges)

               1a4) case, cause (presented for judgment)

               1a5) sentence, decision (of judgment)

               1a6) execution (of judgment)

               1a7) time (of judgment)

            1b) justice, right, rectitude (attributes of God/man)

            1c) ordinance

            1d) decision (in law)

            1e) right, privilege, due (legal)

            1f) proper, fitting, measure, fitness, custom, manner, plan


          4966 mathowq {maw‑thoke'} or mathuwq {maw‑thook'}


          from 4985; TWOT ‑ 1268c



          1) sweet

          n m

          2) sweetness, pleasant (thing)


          5315 nephesh {neh'‑fesh}


          from 5314; TWOT ‑ 1395a; n f


          1) soul, self, life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being,  desire, emotion, passion

            1a) that which breathes, the breathing substance/being, soul, the  inner being of man

            1b) living being

            1c) living being (with life in the blood)

            1d) the man himself, self, person/individual

            1e) seat of the appetites

            1f) seat of emotions and passions

            1g) activity of mind

                1g1) dubious

            1h) activity of the will

               1h1) dubious

            1i) activity of the character

               1i1) dubious


          5352 naqah {naw‑kaw'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1412; v


          1) to be empty, be clear, be pure, be free, be innocent, be desolate,  be cut off

            1a) (Qal) to be empty, be clean, be pure

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to be cleaned out, be purged out

               1b2) to be clean, be free from guilt, be innocent

               1b3) to be free, be exempt from punishment

               1b4) to be free, be exempt from obligation

            1c) (Piel)

               1c1) to hold innocent, acquit

               1c2) to leave unpunished



          5641 cathar {saw‑thar'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1551; v


          1) to hide, conceal

            1a) (Niph)

               1a1) to hide oneself

               1a2) to be hidden, be concealed

            1b) (Piel) to hide carefully

            1c) (Pual) to be hidden carefully, be concealed

            1d) (Hiph) to conceal, hide

            1e) (Hithp) to hide oneself carefully


          5650 {at}ebed {eh'‑bed}


          from 5647; TWOT ‑ 1553a; n m


          1) slave, servant

            1a) slave, servant, man‑servant

            1b) subjects

            1c) servants, worshippers (of God)

            1d) servant (in special sense as prophets, Levites etc)

            1e) servant (of Israel)

            1f) servant (as form of address between equals)


          5703 {at}ad {ad}


          from 5710; TWOT ‑ 1565a; n m


          1) perpetuity, for ever, continuing future

            1a) ancient (of past time)

            1b) for ever (of future time)

               1b1) of continuous existence

            1c) for ever (of God's existence)


          5715 {at}eduwth {ay‑dooth'}


          feminine of 5707; TWOT ‑ 1576f; n f

          1) testimony


          5869 {at}ayin {ah'‑yin}


          probably a primitive word; TWOT ‑ 1612a,1613; n f/m


          1) eye

            1a) eye

               1a1) of physical eye

               1a2) as showing mental qualities

               1a3) of mental and spiritual faculties (figurative)

          2) spring, fountain


          5975 {at}amad {aw‑mad'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1637; v


          1) to stand, remain, endure, take one's stand

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to stand, take one's stand, be in a standing attitude,

                         stand forth, take a stand, present oneself, attend

                         upon, be/become servant of

               1a2) to stand still, stop (moving/doing), cease

               1a3) to tarry, delay, remain, continue, abide, endure, persist,  be steadfast

               1a4) to make a stand, hold one's ground

               1a5) to stand upright, remain standing, stand up, rise, be

                         erect, be upright

               1a6) to arise, appear, come on the scene, stand forth,  appear,  rise up/against

               1a7) to stand with, take one's stand, be appointed, grow flat,  grow insipid

            1b) (Hiph)

               1b1) to station, set

               1b2) to cause to stand firm, maintain

               1b3) to cause to stand up, cause to set up, erect

               1b4) to present (one) before (king)

               1b5) to appoint, ordain, establish

            1c) (Hoph) to be presented, be caused to stand, be stood before

    6030 {at}anah {aw‑naw'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1650,1653; v


          1) to answer, respond, testify, speak, shout

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to answer, respond to

               1a2) to testify, respond as a witness

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to make answer

               1b2) to be answered, receive answer

            1c) (Hiph) to respond

          2) (Qal) to sing, utter tunefully

          3) (Qal) to dwell


          6118 {at}eqeb {ay'‑keb}


          from 6117 in the sense of 6119; TWOT ‑ 1676e


          n m

          1) consequence

             1a) consequence

            1b) consequence, gain, reward

            1c) end


          2) as a consequence, because, consequently


          3) as a consequence of, that, because


          6310 peh {peh}


          from 6284; TWOT ‑ 1738; n m


          1) mouth

            1a) mouth (of man)

            1b) mouth (as organ of speech)

            1c) mouth (of animals)

            1d) mouth, opening, orifice (of a well, river, etc)

            1e) extremity, end


          6337 paz {pawz}


          from 6338; TWOT ‑ 1753a; n m


          1) refined/pure gold


          6440 paniym {paw‑neem'} plural (but always as singular) of an unused  noun [paneh{paw‑neh'}


          from 6437; TWOT ‑ 1782a; n m


          1) face

            1a) face, faces

            1b) presence, person

            1c) face (of seraphim/cherubim)

            1d) face (of animals)

            1e) face, surface (of ground)

            1f) as adv of loc/temp

               1f1) before and behind, toward, in front of, forward, formerly,  from beforetime, before

            1g) with prep

               1g1) in front of, before, to the front of, in the presence of,

                         in the face of, at the face/front of, from the

                         presence of, from before, from before the face of


          6490 piqquwd {pik‑kood'} or piqqud {pik‑kood'}


          from 6485; TWOT ‑ 1802e; n m


          1) precept, statute


          6588 pesha{at} {peh'‑shah}


          from 6586; TWOT ‑ 1846a; n m


          1) transgression, rebellion

            1a1) transgression (against individuals)

            1a2) transgression (nation against nation)

            1a3) transgression (against God)

                1a3a) in general

                1a3b) as recognised by sinner

                1a3c) as God deals with it

                1a3d) as God forgives

            1a4) guilt of transgression

            1a5) punishment for transgression

            1a6) offering for transgression


          6612 p{at}thiy {peth‑ee'} or pethiy {peh'‑thee} or p{at}tha'iy



          from 6601; TWOT ‑ 1853a


          n f

          1) simplicity, naivete


          2) simple, foolish, open‑minded


          6663 tsadaq {tsaw‑dak'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 1879; v


          1) to be just, be righteous

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to have a just cause, be in the right

               1a2) to be justified

               1a3) to be just (of God)

               1a4) to be just, be righteous (in conduct and character)

            1b) (Niph) to be put/made right, be justified

            1c) (Piel) to justify, make to appear righteous, make someone  righteous

            1d) (Hiph)

               1d1) to do/bring justice (in administering law)

               1d2) to declare righteous, justify

               1d3) to justify, vindicate the cause of, save

               1d4) to make righteous, turn to righteousness

            1e) (Hithp) to justify oneself


          6697 tsuwr {tsoor} or tsur {tsoor}


          from 6696; TWOT ‑ 1901a; n m


          1) rock, cliff

            1a) rocky wall, cliff

            1b) rock (with flat surface)

            1c) block of stone, boulder

            1d) rock (specific)

            1e) rock (of God)

            1f) rock (of heathen gods)

            n pr dei

            1g) Rock


          6869 tsarah {tsaw‑raw'}


          feminine of 6862; TWOT ‑ 1973c,1974b; n f


          1) straits, distress, trouble

          2) vexer, rival wife


          7098 qatsah {kaw‑tsaw'}


          feminine of 7097; TWOT ‑ 2053b; n f/m


          1) end, extremity

            1a) end

            1b) from the whole of, from among (of what is included between  extremities)


          7227 rab {rab}


          by contracted from 7231; TWOT ‑ 2099a,2099b



          1) much, many, great

            1a) much

            1b) many

            1c) abounding in

            1d) more numerous than

            1e) abundant, enough

            1f) great

            1g) strong

            1h) greater than


            1i) much, exceedingly

          n m

          2) captain, chief


          7323 ruwts {roots}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2137; v


          1) to run

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to run

               1a2) runners (participle as subst)

            1b) (Polel) to run swiftly, dart

            1c) (Hiph)

               1c1) to bring/move quickly, hurry

               1c2) to drive away from, cause to run away


          7522 ratsown {raw‑tsone'} or ratson {raw‑tsone'}


          from 7521; TWOT ‑ 2207a; n m


          1) pleasure, delight, favour, goodwill, acceptance, will

            1a) goodwill, favour

            1b) acceptance

            1c) will, desire, pleasure, self‑will


          7682 sagab {saw‑gab'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2234; v


          1) to be high, be inaccessibly high

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to be (too) high (for capture)

               1a2) to be high (of prosperity)

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to be high

               1b2) to be set on high, be (safely) set on high

               1b3) to be exalted (of God)

            1c) (Piel)

               1c1) to set on high, set (securely) on high

               1c2) to exalt, exalt (in effective hostility)

            1d) (Pual) to be set (securely) on high

            1e) (Hiph) to act exaltedly


          7691 sh{at}giy'ah {sheg‑ee‑aw'}


          from 7686; TWOT ‑ 2325a; n f


          1) error


          7725 shuwb {shoob}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2340; v


          1) to return, turn back

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to turn back, return

                   1a1a) to turn back

                   1a1b) to return, come/go back

                   1a1c) to return unto, go back, come back

                   1a1d) of dying

                   1a1e) of human relations (figurative)

                   1a1f) of spiritual relations (figurative)

                        1a1f1) to turn back (from God), apostatise

                        1a1f2) to turn away (of God)

                        1a1f3) to turn back (to God), repent

                        1a1f4) turn back (from evil)

                   1a1g) of inanimate things

                   1a1h) in repetition

            1b) (Po)

               1b1) to bring back

               1b2) to restore, refresh, repair (figurative)

               1b3) to lead away (enticingly)

               1b4) to show turning, apostatise

            1c) (Pual) restored (participle)

            1d) (Hiph) to cause to return, bring back

               1d1) to bring back, allow to return, put back, draw back, give  back, restore, relinquish, give in payment

               1d2) to bring back, refresh, restore

               1d3) to bring back, report to, answer

               1d4) to bring back, make requital, pay (as recompense)

               1d5) to turn back/backward, repel, defeat, repulse, hinder,  reject, refuse

               1d6) to turn away (face), turn toward

               1d7) to turn against

               1d8) to bring back to mind

               1d9) to show a turning away

               1d10) to reverse, revoke

            1e) (Hoph) to be returned, be restored, be brought back


          7760 suwm {soom} or siym {seem}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2243; v


          1) to put, place, set, appoint, make

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to put, set, lay, put/lay upon, lay (violent) hands on

               1a2) to set, direct, direct toward

                   1a2a) to extend (compassion) (figurative)

               1a3) to set, ordain, establish, found, appoint, constitute,

                         make, determine, fix

               1a4) to set, station, put, set in place, plant, fix

                1a5) to make, make for, transform into, constitute, fashion,   work, bring to pass, appoint, give

            1b) (Hiph) to set/make for a sign

            1c) (Hoph) to be set


          7797 suws {soos} or siys {sece}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2246; v


          1) to exult, rejoice

            1a) (Qal) to exult, display joy


          8034 shem {shame}


          a primitive word [perhaps rather from 7760 through the idea of   definite and conspicuous position; TWOT ‑ 2405; n m


          1) name

            1a) name

            1b) reputation, fame, glory

            1c) the Name (as designation of God)

            1d) memorial, monument


          8055 samach {saw‑makh'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2268; v


          1) to rejoice, be glad

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to rejoice

               1a2) to rejoice (arrogantly), exult (at)

               1a3) to rejoice (religiously)

            1b) (Piel) to cause to rejoice, gladden, make glad

            1c) (Hiph) to cause to rejoice, gladden, make glad



          8104 shamar {shaw‑mar'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2414; v


          1) to keep, guard, observe, give heed

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to keep, have charge of

               1a2) to keep, guard, keep watch and ward, protect, save life

               1a2a) watch, watchman (participle)

               1a3) to watch for, wait for

               1a4) to watch, observe

               1a5) to keep, retain, treasure up (in memory)

               1a6) to keep (within bounds), restrain

               1a7) to observe, celebrate, keep (sabbath/covenant/commands),  perform (vow)

               1a8) to keep, preserve, protect

               1a9) to keep, reserve

            1b) (Niph)

               1b1) to be on one's guard, take heed, take care, beware

               1b2) to keep oneself, refrain, abstain

               1b3) to be kept, be guarded

            1c) (Piel) to keep, pay heed

            1d) (Hithp) to keep oneself from


          8451 towrah {to‑raw'} or torah {to‑raw'}

          from 3384; TWOT ‑ 910d; n f


          1) law, direction, instruction

            1a) instruction, direction (human/divine)

               1a1) body of prophetic teaching

               1a2) instruction in Messianic age

               1a3) body of priestly direction/instruction

               1a4) body of legal directives

            1b) law

               1b1) law of the burnt offering

               1b2) of special law, codes of law

            1c) custom, manner

            1d) the Deuteronomic or Mosaic Law


          8549 tamiym {taw‑meem'}


          from 8552; TWOT ‑ 2522d; adj


          1) complete, whole, entire, sound

            1a) complete, whole, entire

            1b) whole, sound, healthful

            1c) complete, entire (of time)

            1d) sound, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity

            1e) what is complete/entirely in accord with truth and fact

                     (neuter adj/subst


          8552 tamam {taw‑mam'}


          a primitive root; TWOT ‑ 2522; v


          1) to be complete, be finished, be at an end

            1a) (Qal)

               1a1) to be finished, be completed

                1a1a) completely, wholly, entirely (as auxiliary with verb)

               1a2) to be finished, come to an end, cease

               1a3) to be complete (of number)

               1a4) to be consumed, be exhausted, be spent

               1a5) to be finished, be consumed, be destroyed

               1a6) to be complete, be sound, be unimpaired, be upright


               1a7) to complete, finish

               1a8) to be completely crossed over

            1b) (Niph) to be consumed

            1c) (Hiph)

               1c1) to finish, complete, perfect

               1c2) to finish, cease doing, leave off doing

               1c3) to complete, sum up, make whole

               1c4) to destroy (uncleanness)

               1c5) to make sound

            1d) (Hithp) to deal in integrity, act uprightly


          8622 t{at}quwphah {tek‑oo‑faw'} or t{at}quphah {tek‑oo‑faw'}


          from 5362; TWOT ‑ 2001a; n f


          1) coming round, circuit of time/space, a turning, circuit

            1a) at the circuit (as adverb)

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